Many localities fought against the invaders; ultimately, none were successful. For many decades to come, this was the easternmost limit of Muslim rule. [45], One year later, Abd-Allah ibn Amir sent an army under Rabi ibn Ziyad Harithi to Sakastan. Four divisions of Persian and Christian Arab auxiliaries were present at Hanafiz, Zumiel, Sanni and Muzieh. Meanwhile, Umar ordered Saad to enter into peace negotiations with Yazdegerd III and invite him to convert to Islam to prevent Persian forces from taking the field. On the eve of the campaign, Umar, in order to boost morale, decided to reinstall Khalid as field commander, four years after his dismissal. In 644, al-'Ala' once again attacked Fars from Bahrain, reaching as far as Estakhr, until he was repulsed by the Persian governor (marzban) of Fars, Shahrag. However, during the Ummayad Caliphate, the Ummayads imposed Arabic as the primary language of their subjected people throughout their empire, displacing their indigenous languages. Another important theme of Pourshariati's study is a re-evaluation of the traditional timeline. The Persians continued raiding Mesopotamia, which remained politically unstable. Peace will be upon him who follows the guidance. By then almost the whole of the South Caucasus was captured.[51]. After the devastating defeat at Nahavand, the last Sassanid emperor, Yazdegerd III, fled to different parts of Persia to raise a new army, with limited success, while Umar attempted to capture him. Even when a strong king emerged following a series of coups, the Sassanids never completely recovered. On the northeastern borders of the Empire, in Mesopotamia, the situation was rapidly deteriorating. [61] It is reported that Zoroastrians were subjected to humiliation and ridicule when paying the jizya in order to make them feel inferior.[62]. Linguistics- Those people whose first language is Arabic. unfortunately most of Arabs hates Persians and most of Persians hates Arabs that have some historical reasons like savagely attacks of Arabic Bedouins (they was nomads) to the Persian Sassanian Lands and the conquest of Persia by Arabic Rashidun Caliphate and after that the islamic golden era started and most of Arabs for this victory and victory against the Roman empire, becomes … [71] In Afghanistan, Islam was spread due to Umayyad missionary efforts particularly under the reign of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz.[71]. [4] Following the transfer of Khalid to the Byzantine front in the Levant, the Muslims eventually lost their holdings to Sasanian counterattacks. On hearing of the Muslim advance, Yazdegerd III left for Balkh. With the success of all three missions, the advance into Armenia came to an end with the death of Umar in November 644. Fred M. Donner, "Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam", Harvard University Press, 2010. Conversion to Islam was gradual and incentivized over a period of centuries with some never converting still to this day; however, there were cases of Zoroastrian scriptures being burnt and some priests being executed, particularly in areas that experienced violent resistance. The purpose of this strategy was to allow commanders to mix with their soldiers and to remind them that they are like everyone else: command is only given to the most competent, and, once the battle is over, the commander returns to his previous position. The remainder of Yazdegerd's army was defeated at the Battle of Oxus River and retreated across the Oxus to Transoxiana. The internal political situation quickly deteriorated after the execution of King Khosrow II in 628 AD. Before attacking Ctesiphon, Khalid decided to eliminate all Persian forces in the south and west. The Persians, who had only one generation before conquered Egypt and Asia Minor, lost decisive battles when nimble, lightly armed Arabs accustomed to skirmishes and desert warfare attacked them. Bukair ibn Abdullah, who had recently subdued Azerbaijan, was ordered to capture Tiflis. Umar, allegedly aware of this alliance, capitalized on this failure: not wanting to risk a battle with two great powers simultaneously, he quickly moved to reinforce the Muslim army at Yarmouk to engage and defeat the Byzantines. Recent scholarship has begun to question the traditional narrative: Parvaneh Pourshariati, in her Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran, published in 2008, provides both a detailed overview of the problematic nature of trying to establish exactly what happened, and a great deal of original research that questions fundamental facts of the traditional narrative, including the timeline and specific dates. Next, he besieged the provincial capital, Zrang, and, after a heavy battle outside the city, its governor, Aparviz, surrendered. Nu'aym recaptured Hamadan after a bloody battle, and then proceeded to Rey. In 651, Nu'aym ibn Muqaarin, Nu'man's brother, marched northeast to Rey, Iran, about 320 kilometres (200 mi) from Hamadan, and laid siege to the city, which surrendered after fierce resistance. Persian people, or Persians, are those people who are a part or group of Iranian peoples. The existing Sassanid administrative structure proved inadequate when faced with the combined demands of a suddenly expanded empire, economy, and population. The Suwad, the Tigris valley, and the Euphrates valley were now under complete Muslim control. [citation needed], Umar is reported to have issued the following instructions about the protected people: "Make it easy for him, who can not pay tribute; help him who is weak, let them keep their titles, but do not give them our kuniyat [Arabic traditional nicknames or titles]. Arabic and Farsi are totally different languages, but both with a mostly common alphabet, overlapping vocabulary (nearly all going from Arabic to Farsi), and with ties to Islam. (Dari, a variant of the Persian language, is the lingua franca and an official language of Afghanistan and is also spoken in Pakistan.) In April 637, Hashim led 12,000 troops from Ctesiphon to win a victory over the Persians at the Battle of Jalawla. The conflict with the Byzantines greatly contributed to its weakness, by draining Sassanid resources, leaving it a prime target for the Muslims. Thank you Quora User for asking me As much as German, French and English cultures are different. [11] Moreover, the powerful northern and eastern Parthian families, the kust-i khwarasan and kust-i adurbadagan, withdrew to their respective strongholds and made peace with the Arabs, refusing to fight alongside the Sassanians. In addition to the jizya, the old Sassanid land tax (known in Arabic as Kharaj) was also adopted. Ahnaf stayed at Merv and waited for reinforcement from Kufa. In the wake of Khalid's demise, Umar appointed Abdullah ibn Uthman as commander of the Muslim forces for the invasion of Isfahan. "[35] Umar then ordered Utbah ibn Ghazwan to send reinforcements to Khulayd. Once a major world power, the Sasanian Empire had exhausted its human and material resources after decades of warfare against the Byzantine Empire. He is also believed to be the mastermind behind Umar's assassination in 644. Arab people, or Arabs, are those people who inhabit the Arab world. [44] The ruler of Tabaristan then signed a peace treaty with the Caliphate. Even though Arabs invaded Persia and had to change their religion, Iranian kept most of their Zoroastrian tradition and ceremonies and still celebrates them. For a few years, he succeeded gloriously. The last, Yazdegerd III, was a grandson of Khosrau II and was said to be a mere child aged 8 years. Arabs are distinguished from other people on the basis of culture, genealogy, and language. It belongs to what scholars call the Indo-Iranian group of languages. Ch: 7, The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. [citation needed] He next sent an army to Mosul which surrendered on the condition of paying Jizya. Iran to India. The similarity is a bit like that between English and French. Synthesis of Persian conquests. Khosrau was defeated at the Battle of Nineveh in 627, and the Byzantines recaptured all of Syria and penetrated far into the Persian provinces of Mesopotamia. Umar adopted a different approach to the command structure. Please note: comment moderation is enabled and may delay your comment. The Battle of Nahavand was one of the most decisive battles in Islamic history[39] and proved to be the key to Persia. Peace be upon him, who seeks truth and expresses belief in Allah and in His Prophet and testifies that there is no god but Allah and that He has no partner, and who believes that Muhammad is His servant and Prophet. B0006RTNB4. This entire stretch is called the “Iranian Cultural Continent.”. Iran - Iran - History: This article discusses the history of Iran from 640 ce to the present. The History of Al-Tabari: The Challenge to the Empires, Translated by Khalid Yahya Blankinship, Published by SUNY Press, 1993, The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. Umar ordered Ahnaf to break up the alliance. First, along the border between Arabia and these two great empires were numerous nomadic Arab tribes serving as a buffer between the Persians and Romans. The Khan of Farghana, realizing that fighting against the Muslims might endanger his own kingdom, withdrew from the alliance and pulled back to Farghana. Sassanid society was divided into four classes: priests, warriors, secretaries, and commoners. A Persian convert to Islam, Hormoz ibn Hayyan al-'Abdi, was then sent by Uthman ibn Abi al-As to attack a fortress known as Senez on the coast of Fars. Nimisha Kaushik. [15] It contributed to the fall of the Sasanian Empire. After several years, Caliph Umar adopted a new offensive policy,[38] preparing to launch a full-scale invasion of what remained of the Sassanid Empire. The main rebellions were in the Persian provinces of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Fars, Sistan (in 649), Khorasan (651), and Makran (650). There is no need to resubmit your comment. The new non-Muslim subjects were protected by the state and known as dhimmi (protected), and were to pay a special tax, the jizya (tribute), which was calculated at varying individual rates, usually two dirhams for able-bodied men of military age, in return for exemption from military service. These devastating defeats ended Persian control over Mesopotamia, and left the Persian capital Ctesiphon vulnerable. Khalid received a call for aid from northern Arabia at Dawmat al-Jandal, where another Muslim Arab general, Iyad ibn Ghanm, was trapped among the rebel tribes. Some meanings have been overlapping in their meanings. In fact, they are culturally very proud and refuse to speak or learn arabic. “Arab world” is considered to be located in North Africa and Western Asia; Persians are those people who inhabit the Iranian Cultural Continent which includes the Iranian Plateau to the Indus River of … "[12] An important consequence of this change in timeline means that the Arab conquest started precisely when the Sasanians and Parthians were engaged in internecine warfare over who was to succeed the Sasanian throne.[12]. Next, Abu Musa marched against Junde Sabur, the only place left of military importance in the Persian province of Khuzistan, which surrendered to the Muslims after a siege of a few weeks. Khalid went there and defeated the rebels in the Battle of Dawmat al-Jandal in the last week of August. The conquest of Iranian Azerbaijan started in 651,[49] part of a simultaneous attack launched against Kerman and Makran in the southeast (described above), against Sistan in the northeast and against Azerbaijan in the northwest. They are a part of a people called the “Iranian peoples.” They are very closely related to people who speak Iranian languages and dialects. [18] Particularly in dispute is the assertion that Khosrau II received a letter from Muhammad, as the Sassanid court ceremony was notoriously intricate, and it is unlikely that a letter from what at the time was a minor regional power would have reached the hands of the Shahanshah.[19]. The Arab conquests: 7th century: One of the most dramatic and sudden movements of any people in history is the expansion, by conquest, of the Arabs in the 7th century (only the example of the Mongols in the 13th century can match it). Nu'aym then marched 240 kilometres (150 mi) northeast towards Qom, which was captured without much resistance. They basically belong to the ethnic Indo-European group and exclusively to the ancient Indo-Iranian ethnic group. [39] The conquest of those provinces would leave Khorasan isolated and vulnerable, the last stage of the conquest of Sassanid Persia. Both perceptions are of course valid, depending on one's angle of vision... Iran was indeed Islamized, but it was not Arabized. Saad, on Umar's instructions, attacked Hormuzan, while Utbah ibn Ghazwan, aided by Nouman ibn Muqarin, attacked Ahvaz and forced Hormuzan into a peace treaty, under which Ahvaz would remain in Hormuzan's possession as a Muslim vassal state and would pay tribute. Pourshariati's central thesis is that contrary to what was commonly assumed, the Sassanian Empire was highly decentralized, and was in fact a "confederation" with the Parthians, who themselves retained a high level of independence. In 629, Khosrau's general Shahrbaraz agreed to peace, and the border between the two empires was once again the same as it had been in 602. Khorasan was the second-largest province of the Sassanid Empire. [16], After the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah in 628, Islamic tradition holds that Muhammad sent many letters to the princes, kings, and chiefs of the various tribes and kingdoms of the time, exhorting them to convert to Islam and bow to the order of Allah. From Bab, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea, Bukair continued his march north. By the lethal standards of Near Eastern history, there is little without precedent in the war between Iran and Iraq. “Pars” is the region from which the Persian Empire or Achaemenid Empire started expanding. Khosrau II was executed in 628 and as a result, there were numerous claimants to the throne; from 628 to 632 there were ten kings and queens of Persia. Farsi is a word that refers to the dialect of the Persian language being spoken by the people of Iran. However, before Umar could issue the reappointment order, Khalid died in Emesa. In the last week of May, the important city of Hira fell to the Muslims. Almost the same alphabet, and a lot of words in common. Ch:19. However, Estakhr failed to put up a strong resistance, and was soon sacked by the Arabs, who killed over 40,000 defenders. [50] From Zanjan, Hudheifa marched to Ardabil which surrendered peacefully. However, most mentions of Iran in the news focus on some of the many problems the country is facing, such as its controversial nuclear program, undemocratic government, and harsh gender divide. Tuster, north of the Persian forces at Jalawla were commanded by Mihran the success the! Same script but are vastly different languages, cultures, and captured Bab al-Abwab by force defeated. 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